Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Care Plan

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Nursing Care Plan for Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)

Definition of ITP

ITP or Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. Idiopathic means the cause is unknown. Thrombocytopenic means that the blood does not have enough blood platelets (thrombocytes). Purpura means someone has bruised many (redundant). The term is also an ITP Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura stands. (Family Doctor, 2006).

Idiopathic (autoimmune) Trobocytopenic Purpura (ITP / ATP) is an autoimmune disorder in which autoantibodies Ig G, formed to bind platelets.

It is unclear whether the antigen on the surface of platelets formed. Although antiplatelet antibodies can bind complement, platelets are not damaged by direct lysis. Insident most common at the tender age of 20-50 and is more frequent in women than men (2:1). (Arief Mansoer, et al).

Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura is called an autoimmune disorder characterized by persistent thrombocytopenia (peripheral blood platelet numbers less than 15.000/μL) caused by autoantibodies that bind to platelet antigens causing premature destruction of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system, especially in the spleen. Or it can mean that idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura is a bleeding condition in which the blood does not come out properly. Occurs due to a low platelet count or platelet count. Circulating platelets through the blood vessels and help stop bleeding by means of clot. Idiopathic means that the cause of the disease itself is not known. Thrombocytopenia is the number of platelets in the blood is below normal. Purpura is a bluish bruises caused by bleeding under the skin. Bruising showed that bleeding has occurred in small blood vessels under the skin. (ana information center, 2008).


Etiology of ITP

The cause of ITP is not known for certain, the mechanism that occurs through the formation of antibodies that attack the cells of platelets, so platelets cell death. (Imran, 2008). The disease is thought to involve an autoimmune reaction, where the body produces antibodies that attack its own platelet count . Under normal conditions, the antibody is a healthy body's response to bacteria or virus that enters the body. But for patients with ITP, antibodies attack even cells ubuhnya own blood platelets. (Family Doctor, 2006).
Although the bone marrow to increase platelet formation, platelet existing inventory still can not meet the body's needs. In most cases, it is suspected that ITP is caused by the body's immune system. Normally the immune system makes antibodies to fight off foreign substances that enter the body. In ITP, the immune system against the body's own platelets. The reason the immune system attacks the platelets in the body remains unknown. (ana information center, 2008).

a. ITP may also be caused by hypersplenism, viral infection, food intoxication or drug or chemical, physical influence (radiation, heat), lack of maturation factors (eg malnutrition), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), autoimmune. Based on etiology , ITP is divided into 2 primary ( idiopathic ) and secondary. Based on the type of acute onset of illness distinguished when it happened less than or equal to 6 months (generally occurs in children ) and chronic if more than 6 months (umunnya occurs in adults). (ana information center, 2008)

b. ITP also occurs in people with HIV . whereas drugs such as heparin, liquor, quinidine, sulfonamides may also cause thrombocytopenia. Usually the signs of disease and the factors that blessings with this disease are as follows : purpura, bleeding and menstrual blood are much longer maturity, bleeding nostrils, bleeding jaw teeth, the latest virus immunization, recent viral illness and hack or bruising.


Symptoms and Signs of ITP
  • Red spots on the skin (especially in the legs), often clustered and resemble a rash. These spots, known as petechiae, caused due to bleeding under the skin.
  • Bruising or bluish areas on the skin or mucous membranes (such as below the mouth) due to bleeding under the skin. The bruises may occur for no apparent reason. This type of bruise called purpura. Bleeding is more likely to form a three-dimensional mass called a hematoma.
  • Nose bleeds or bleeding of the gums. There is blood in the urine and feces. Some kind of bleeding can be a sign of difficult discontinued ITP. Including prolonged menstruation in women. Bleeding in the brain is rare, and symptoms of bleeding in the brain can indicate the severity of the disease.
  • Low platelet count will cause pain, fatigue (tiredness), difficulty concentrating.

Source : http://nandacareplan.blogspot.com/2013/12/idiopathic-thrombocytopenic-purpura.html

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