Impaired Gas exchange

Excess or deficit in oxygenation and/or carbon dioxide elimination at the alveolar-capillary membrane

Defining Characteristics:
  • Visual disturbances; 
  • decreased carbon dioxide; 
  • dyspnea; 
  • abnormal arterial blood gases; 
  • hypoxia; 
  • irritability; 
  • somnolence; 
  • restlessness; 
  • hypercapnia;
  • tachycardia; 
  • cyanosis (in neonates only); 
  • abnormal skin color (pale, dusky); 
  • hypoxemia; 
  • hypercarbia; 
  • headache on awakening; 
  • abnormal rate, rhythm, depth of breathing; 
  • diaphoresis; 
  • abnormal arterial pH; 
  • nasal flaring

NOC Outcomes (Nursing Outcomes Classification)

Suggested NOC Labels
  • Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange
  • Respiratory Status: Ventilation
  • Tissue Perfusion: Pulmonary
  • Vital Signs Status
  • Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance
Client Outcomes
  • Demonstrates improved ventilation and adequate oxygenation as evidenced by blood gases within client's normal parameters
  • Maintains clear lung fields and remains free of signs of respiratory distress
  • Verbalizes understanding of oxygen and other therapeutic interventions
NIC Interventions (Nursing Interventions Classification)

Suggested NIC Labels
  • Airway Management
  • Oxygen Therapy
  • Respiratory Monitoring
  • Acid-Base Management

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